WordPress block themes are a new paradigm in WordPress theme design, introduced with the Full Site Editing (FSE) features. These themes are built primarily using blocks, which are the fundamental units within the WordPress editor. Let’s break down the various parts shown in the screenshot, which represent the different components of a WordPress block theme:
- functions.php: This is a core WordPress theme file. It acts like a plugin and is used to add features and extend the functionalities of WordPress. In a block theme, it might enqueue stylesheets and scripts, define theme supports, and include various theme functionalities.
- parts: This directory could contain template parts, which are reusable pieces of code used in various templates, like headers, footers, and sidebars. Template parts in block themes are usually composed of block patterns and block templates.
- patterns: Patterns are predefined block layouts, ready to be inserted into posts and pages. They provide a way to quickly add complex structures of blocks, like a contact form layout, a featured product section, etc.
- readme.txt: This file usually contains information about the theme, including the version, author information, and a description of the theme. It’s essential for theme submission to the WordPress theme repository.
- screenshot.png: This image gives users a preview of how the theme looks when activated. It’s shown in the theme selection area of the WordPress admin.
- style.css: The main stylesheet file. It includes the header section that defines the theme’s metadata and provides the primary CSS styling for the theme’s HTML output.
- styles: This directory could contain additional CSS files that might be specific to certain aspects of the theme, like Gutenberg editor styles, responsive design styles, or styles for specific post types.
- templates: In a block theme, this directory holds the block templates. These are full-page layouts composed entirely of blocks, which replace the traditional PHP-based templates. They define the default structure of different page types, such as the home page, single post, or archive pages.
- theme.json: This is a configuration file introduced in block themes that enables theme designers to define the default settings for block styles and features, global styles, color palettes, typography settings, and more.
Each of these components plays a critical role in the structure and functionality of a WordPress block theme, offering extensive customization options through a combination of blocks, patterns, and styles.